RS Ruichumhao : The Only and First Tangkhul Missionary

Tangkhul Nagas remembered Ruichumhoa as the ‘father of Christianity’.

The following piece is a short biography of Rungsung Ruichumhao and his visions interpretation.

Mr. RS. Ruichumhao was born on 7th May 1896, He attended school from 1905-1912. In 1909, he was baptized by Rev. William Pettigrew. He was the first convert among the Tangkhul Nagas. He was also the first among Nagas in Manipur to receive education from Jorhat and Shillong from 1914-1916. During the 1st World War, he was selected to go to France to assist the Allied Forces as the Group Leader of 2000 Nagas in the Labour Corps and promoted to higher rank in 1917. On his return from France, he went to Shillong for further studies in 1919. After that, he came back to his Tangkhul community with the Bible and the Holy Spirit with a single mission to spread the Gospel. Very soon, this man, inspired by the Holy spirit, went far beyond the Mao-Maram frontiers in Manipur and Somrah Tract in Burma to preach the Gospel, winning 1300 souls single-handedly. He is still remembered as the father of Christianity in larger parts of the Tangkhul community. He died on 17th January, 1933. He was only 37 then.

EPILOGUE: INTERPRETING SOME OF THE VISIONS HE SAW

Ruichumhao was a man of vision in the true sense of the term. His vision went beyond the realm of religion. It encompasses political, educational and economic vision too. He dug canals to divert water to fields that were not properly irrigated. These canals to these days continue to water these parched fields, ensuring that many families do not go hungry. Here in this section the focus is only on the spiritual visions he received from God. Some of these visions have already appeared in the preceding pages. They are selected because of their significance and wider implications. First, a brief summary of the visions is given, second, an interpretation and their fulfillments are traced.

1. While he was studying at the L.P. School of Phadang in 1907(?) a local woman saw in her dream a bright star over Somdal.

2. In 1906 at Phadang village, he dreamt that he was rolling upon the royal bed for young people kept at the house of the chief. Young people did not sleep at home but in their bachelor’s dormitory (morung), which was mostly the chief’s house. A mammoth flat piece of wood hewn out of a single tree was used for this kind of bed. One such bed could accommodate around 10 persons.

3. At Ukhrul in 1908 on his way to the bathroom he was engulfed in a mysterious fire. But he was neither burnt, singed nor did he felt the searing heat. When Rev.William Pettigrew was told of this, he advised Ruichumhao not to tell others. “The Lord has wonderful but unknown plan for you” was the explanation of Pettigrew.

4. In 1918 while he was in France, he used to pray every day in the early hours of the morning. His body would be covered in a bright glow of light and sparks. The commander of his unit photographed this. When asked why he was praying everyday Ruichumhao replied, “I am standing on a foreign soil hearing throughout the day hearing the volleys of gunfire and battles. I am praying for the safety of the soldiers, for peace, and for victory for France and England”. The commander was impressed and remarked to his officers that Ruichumhao was fit to become a leader. He was assigned additional responsibilities and privileges after this incident.

Vision no. 1.
The bright star that was seen in the dream was Ruichumhao who shone both in his life and death.

Vision no. 2.
Rolling in the bed kept in the house of the chief fore shadowed the persecution and the struggle between the old religion of Shamanism and the new religion of Christianity. Ruichumhao and the new converts were perceived as iconoclasts destabilizing their society, since the new Christians would not join in observing the taboos, rituals and the other tribal religious festivals and functions. Imposing a fine of Rs 15 did not deter others from joining the church. Some defenders of the old ways and religion were fanatically violent. One such was Shangkatit an elderly man of Hoome village. He decided to take the matter in his own hands by vowing to kill Ruichumhao. Hearing that in three days Ruichumhao would be arriving at Khukhon Machit village, Shangkatit sharpened his spear. That night he dreamt that he turned into a lamb when Ruichumhao hit him with a stick. On hearing that Ruichumhao had arrived he went to the village with the intention of impaling Ruichumhao on his spear. But on seeing Ruichumhao, he started trembling with fear. Casting down his spear he ran to him, knelt before him and pleaded, “Please do not punish me. I am very sorry. I wanted to kill you but you must be planning to send me to prison. For I dreamt that after you hit me I became a lamb”. Ruichumhao smiled and replied, “O Awo (grandpa), do not worry at all. But would you like to become a Christian?”. Shangkat, it not only chose to become one but he promised to lead the whole village to Christianity. This kind of struggle between the two religions was the meaning of his vision.

Vision no. 3.
The vision of the mysterious fire that did not burn him was about the fight for justice on behalf of his people against L.L Peters the S.D.O. , Ukhrul. Peter was taking undue advantages of the Tangkhuls in the name of the Labour Corps and the government. During the paddy field season he would force them to work on the road for two or three weeks, use them as porters to carry army rations between Imphal and Ukhrul (82 km) and force young beautiful women to have sex with him. Burning with righteous anger Ruichumhao helped the victims to send a petition against Peters to J.C. Higgins, the Political Agent. Higgins on finding that the allegations against Peters were true transferred him to a distant place. His fearless fight for justice against a powerful officer like Peters was the meaning of vision no. 3. The Christians also accused Peters as being against conversion and anti-Christian.

Vision no. 4.
The light around his body and sparks from his chest meant the breaking out of the Kuki Rebellion War of 1917- 19. The stars signified recognition and honor for him at this war. He transcended tribalism and parochialism in his interaction with other tribes. It was no small achievement that his impartial and disinterested approach earned him the respect of other people, in this case, the Kuki tribe. Those who worked closely with him testified to his broad mindedness when dealing with the Kukis.

Disclaimer: The Arek do not claims ownership of this article. This article is written and published by Mash Somi.

A Short Review on “Okthuishaprala – Soror Zimik” by Themreichon

“Ngayin, ili hanglu chiakha leikashi hiya kacham kashang wui kakhalat mathei mana. Kateowa bing wui vangla kahakka bing wui vangla leikashi wui kakhalat ngaraichaya.”

Okthuishap Rala? is a tragic Tangkhul language novel written by Soror Zimik. The novel gives an account of Ngayin and Soyar’s tragic love story or more so the tragic life of Ngayin— the protagonist of the novel. A sob story, a tear-jerker definitely not a literary novel, Okthuishap Rala? explores the themes of class disparity, HIV/AIDS, love, childhood, alcoholism, upholding societal values, discrimination on grounds of social dogmas, and friendship. Zimik maps out the so-called “societal attitude” towards everything that is not based on convention. In this novel, such marginalized attitude is meted out to people living with HIV/AIDS, which we can say is still prevalent in the present society. Ngayin is alienated from the society on the grounds that his parents died of HIV/AIDS. The perspective of HIV/AIDS which the society deems it to be dangerous and unacceptable is prominently manifested in the novel. Because of the stigma created by the society towards people living with HIV/AIDS, Ngayin, a poor orphan is forced to give up the love of his life and slowly shrinks away as people watched him ruin his life bit by bit.

Okthuishap Rala? will take you down memory lane and give you a sense of belonging. The streets of Ukhrul and its various street foods; concerts in town hall; school days; GREF road and Ukhrul Jail road; Ukhrul bolero taxis and the many natural entertainment that comes with Ukhrul are some of the memorabilia that’ll take you to Ukhrul upon reading this novel. Even the very mention of HIV/AIDS would trigger you back to Ukhrul Town, which once had the highest record of HIV/AIDS prevalence in Manipur. Needless to say, the judgmental society that we live in today forms the core catalyst of every occurrence in this story.

On a narrower side of the story, Zimik catastrophizes the circumstance of Ngayin, the protagonist of the novel, in an immoderate fashion. How can one human suffer so much? There’s agony after agony, so much so that it appeared like all the sufferings have been laid over to Ngayin. In his relationship with Soyar, somewhere down the storyline it felt like Soyar has got nothing to do with their relationship. For at some point, it was only Ngayin who agonises about their failing relationship while there was not so much involvement from Soyar even when their relationship broke apart. Setting aside all these, Okthuishap Rala? is an absorption of thoughts and entertainment together, something that lies between watching a Tangkhul film and listening to a sad Tangkhul song. 

Why should you read Okthuishap Rala?

As far I know, I believe Soror Zimik is the second novelist who writes in Tangkhul language after the acclaimed Tangkhul novelist, Makanmi Ramror. This book is a 334 page book written in solid Tangkhul language— satisfying and appealing. Being a Tangkhul, this book gives me a sense of belonging. I love reading and to read a book or a novel written in Tangkhul language is such a delight! There’s curiosity as the page progresses  and it doesn’t bore me as reading a novel is Tangkhul language is still very new to me. I enjoyed every line, sobbing at times after reading the depressing life of Ngayin. This book is a one time read for me as all the plots starts registering in my mind like I am watching a Tangkhul movie. I’d say reading this book is like watching a Tangkhul movie. Pick up this book and experience how thrilling it is to read a novel written in Tangkhul language.

Elaborated highlights of the novel

Ngayin, who lives in Ukhrul Town with his widowed mother, comes from a poverty-stricken family. Soyar, the only daughter of one of the most elitist and richest families in Ukhrul Town is the best friend of Ngayin. Since childhood Ngayin and Soyar have been inseparable. They are as thick as thieves. They study and go to the same school. Their close affinity often becomes the subject of discussion, both in school and Ukhrul Town. Soon the friendship between them grew into deep affection. Promising unequivocal love towards each other, the duo plans to study in Shillong together for Pre-University course after their tenth grade.

Ngayin’s father, in his living days, lived a frivolous life giving away to drugs and alcoholism. He squandered away the little wealth that they have in the act of self-gratification leading to broken and wretched life. His offending lifestyle drew away all the near and dear ones. He lived a despicable and contemptible life. The day he passed away there were silent whispers in the neighbourhood that the head of the family departed this life suffering from HIV/AIDS. Everybody whispered in hushed tones, for in Ukhrul, to have HIV/AIDS is to live with irremediable stigma— a disgrace, a shame. 

“Ngayin, nathum katha hina kazingram mava akha okathui mi katonga kazingram mava rar la meifa zangser haora”

Unbeknownst to Ngayin about his father’s disease, his mother brought him up to be a fine and obedient young boy. The neighbourhood mothers wish to have sons like Ngayin. For Ngayin — a precocious and duteous son, listens to his mother and knows the value of life. Destitution and hardship have always been constant companions for Ngayin and his mother. Ngayin knows how it feels to live a life in poverty. Nonetheless, the mother-son duo lives a forbearing life nurturing what little they have. 

“Inishi shimkhur hiya ngaya eina ngashun wui khangateili ngarai chaya.”

The disparity in class and wealth between Ngayin’s family and Soyar’s family is about to create a barrier in their relationship. Ngayin loves Soyar as much as the countless stars in the sky and both could not live without each other. The class difference has always been a shattering thought for Ngayin whenever he proclaims his love for Soyar.

“Leikashi hina uklungli angayung phonkhui kahai chitharanva masashat luipaimana.”

Life is uncertain and it will always be. One summer morning, Ngayin’s mother suddenly fell ill. Everything happened in an instant and that summer death lays her icy hands on Ngayin’s mother. Ngayin’s life shattered into pieces. Now he is left all alone to tend to himself loathed and unwanted, chiefly by his close relatives pertaining to shame brought upon the family name by his father. The dream to study in Shillong with Soyar became a mere wish after his mother’s passing. Ngayin had to take care of his home and there was nobody to support him for his further studies. Ngayin had to forego his dream to study in Shillong with Soyar. Soyar unwillingly left for Shillong without Ngayin right after the board results. 

“Leikashi wui kaphaning maungkashung hiya ngaha shilakka, arila maleimana. Leikashi leiman hiya runlala makan mana, phunglala makan mana”

Life went about, Ngayin studying in Ukhrul and Soyar in Shillong. Long distance and the lack of communication between  Soyar and Ngayin drew their relationship apart. Soyar grew closer towards Rhokho, an Angami Tangkhul who studies in the same college with her. Although Soyar still loves Ngayin and Rhokho is wide aware of Ngayin and Soyar’s relationship, the Shillong duo could not stop being close. Soyar continued her under-graduate course in Shillong while Ngayin continued in Ukhrul due to financial constraints. Stories about Soyar and Rhokho were not alien to Ngayin nor does Soyar admits the alleged relationship with Rhokho. But people know that something is brewing between Rhokho and Soyar including their parents.

“Khamashunga kachangkhat leikashi hili sakkhamei khikhala maleimana. Sina lupa lan einala malokhuipaimana.”

Ngayin’s mother left with no intimidation about his father’s disease. There were talks in the Town that HIV/AIDS took away the lives of Ngayin’s parents. And it is such that if both the parents die of HIV/AIDS there is high chance that the children would also contract the disease. People, including Soyar’s parents mocked and alienated Ngayin. Ngayin found out the bitter truth by rummaging through the old letters of his father and it was written that his father had contracted the disease during his prime. Ngayin felt devastated and slowly began to move away from Soyar. But life was hard but love was harder. He could not bring the word to Soyar. 

Meanwhile, the families of Soyar and Rhokho are in talks about their marriage. Soyar knew that she won’t be able to live without Ngayin, not even one bit. Soyar decided to run away with Ngayin but they were intercepted by Soyar’s father who belittled and abused Ngayin in front of the whole neighbourhood for being the son of HIV/AIDS (zakkashi kazat) victim parents. In a rage Ngayin declared that he never want to see her. Soyar and Ngayin were forced to go separate ways. 

“Nali maleishi thuda kaikahai maningmana kha thang kachida nali leikashi mataisang mamanda I khipa khala kachi malai haoki kachi atam rashung haoda I uklung na kayakha leishilala I khamorna maleikashi sarekda keishat leiman otphun katonga phungkhuihaida zat kahaina.”

Ngayin fled the town and went and settled in one of the Eastern regions for more than three years. During this time he started taking comfort in alcohol. Ngayin’s life crumbled into pieces. Day in, day out, alcohol became his sole companion. Drinking became his life. He returned back to Ukhrul with this drinking habit and he became the talk of the town for there was not even a single day where people didn’t see Ngayin in drunken state. He would walk up and down the street like a mad dog and people would pity him, some loathe. Soyar married Rhokho and went away to settle in New Delhi. 

“Mirin khonshat hitha phalunga, mitui morei phungkazat chothaira, shaphaira. I khikha makahao luimana. Leikashi wui kakahalat theikhui haira, ngasot nao wui aman kasakla tamkhui haira, mirin wui ringkapha khangayam kachot kachangla samphangkhui haira. Mirin hina shaphaoka.”

For a long time Ngayin lived an intoxicated life. As for Soyar, she went on to live a happy life with her husband Rhokho and son, Yarmishang in the capital city. They live a contended and affluent life. After a good seven years of living in inebriety, it finally dawned on Ngayin that life is a precious gift from God. He remembered how much his mother treasured life. He decided to make his life right before it is too late. His transformation stupefied everyone. Ngayin became a changed man and went on to pursue a diploma course in Fine Arts from National Institute of Fine Arts, Delhi. After his diploma he taught Art in a school for two years where Yarmishang, son of Rhokho and Soyar is a student. Although Ngayin could not fulfill his desires to be with Soyar, the only love of his life, he was able to become one of the closest friends of her son Yarmishang and for that Ngayin remains grateful to God. Read on the book to find out what happened to Ngayin.

Disclaimer: The Arek do not claim ownership of this article.  Interested person may follow to Themreichon works at Themreichonreads.

COVID – 19 Hina Tangkhulli Khi Ngachei Ngasakpaili Khala

by: Tuisem Shimrah

COVID – 19 mimao (pandemic) hina okathui apam kachivali michang makhaila saza ngasak haira. Mi sorkhangasai thisang haira kala chungkhameina kazada lei, kaikhanala kharai samphanghaira. Kazat hili khangarar hina ngalei (country) kachivali apong kachungkhali sheisha khangasak khuiramihaira (multidimensional effect). Lansinli ngazansang ngasak haira, wortam shim (educational institutions) kala office/dharma shim (churches, temples, mosques hkt.) shungngasak haira, otpam shimanngasak haira kala mi yamung yamva ngarokta pakhangapa khuiramihaira. India wui PM, Qr Narendra Modina kahang, ―Fighting against COVID – 19 pandemic is no less than a war‖.

Aja COVID-19 hina maram sada ayar ngalei apam ngatei ngateidawui eina shimli hannungkida ima Tangkhulnaobing sorkhangasai leida lei. Kachungkha ungzang haira, aruila ungzangki kachi kachungkha leifaya. Ram kachivana athumbingli quarantine sakhavai shim sakchanglak eina khangaran sami haira. Shorkarnala lan kachungkha heitami haira kala ima Tangkhulli leida khalei Long, civil societies, minganing (MLAs/Councillors), government executives, NGOs, kala ram ramwui longnao katongana yang- pangshap, lan kala atam chikatta ot sada lei.

Chieina ngasoda athumwui mangashong kharing kharakwui vang ithumna thuklak eina khamachuk darkar sahaira. Maramma mi mashing hiyakha ungkazang hina ithumwui yaruirin, manglarin, lansinrin kala phasarin apong ayayavali ngachei ngasak kapai maram leihaowa. Khangachei hi khiwui ngarei (direction) khuira khala kachi hi ithumwui pangli khaleina. Atam leilaga ningyek (strategy) kasem atam ngasahaira.

Ungzangki kachibing (reverse migration) hi matailak eina ot kasanao (employees), ot phada khaleibing (job seekers and aspirants) kala katamnaobing (students) hibing hina. Horzak kahai mi mashing matheirarsalala rough estimate eina mi 10000 to 20000 alungli leisapaira da khuiya. Athum hi khanuithot tamkhui kahai yaron ngala zingkum (age group) 20-40 years hina kachunga sasara. Hina kachitheipava naongarabing hi mikumo akhawui mirinli phasawui (physical) kala ningchuk (mental) pangmeithui kachi atam (stage) sahaoda otmanga hakmeithuida khuikashap (most productive stage) atamlaka. Hanungda khaleibing hiwui eina ithumna apong khani eina theikhuiya, chiya:

  • Mi mashing hiyakhana shim hankhaung (reverse migration) sada khalei hina theikhangasak pava, ishi Tangkhulnaobing hi public or orgnised sectorli full time employee machungmana kha unorganized sectorli kasana chungmeikharda lei kachi theikhui ngasaka. Job security maleithuda lockdown sangashada awui tolop ngasammi kahai hina maram sada maokthuikapai rahaowa.

  • Athumbing hi kachungava sada khalei otpam chi chihochang hailaga shimshong ungpamchang haoki kachi, kaikhana awui business hi shimshong base sahaoki kachi kachungkha zangsara.

Hikatha situation hili ima Tangkhul pangsin kakhui eina ngasoda khangaran kasa darkar sahaira. Mi mashing hiyakhana ngaraikachaiya atamli (same time) ashangva sada (group) ungki kachi hili machuk kharikta pangsinkhuida khamashung shongfali thankazat hi ithumwui thangkhameina. Mi mashing chungkasang hieina ngasoda ram ramwui kharing kharakli ngachei kapai (influences) apong kachungkha leida lei. Chibing chiya:

Yaruirin kala manglarin

Metropolitan citiesli atam sharakha pamsahaokada ram (villageli) ungkapam eina cultural shock or crisis leikapai lei. Chimang maningla kashuirak (unplanned) eina hankhaung sahaoda mirinwui direction shiman kahai thadala leisara. Naongara hiyakha hi talent ayur peida zangsara; kaikhana leadership quality khalei, kaikhana technology singkathei (skill), kaikhana dharmarin kazatta, kaikhanava leikhalonli kathem, kaikhanava sportsli, kaikhana music kala laa sakathei, zangsara. Mi kaikhava khangarui, mangkaza, ari arai kashichin, khali kasa kala minamlaga okathui naongarala zangsara.

Khamashung shongfa chithei khami kala thanva khami hi mahuinapai mara. Hi haklak kahai challenge akhana. Atam chada athumwui shongfa (course) mashungkhuihai akha ima yurwui vang sakkhamataiya lan ngasara kha ngasharta handle masa akha ima yur shiman kapaiwui apong akhanada theikhui.

Hi ithum katongawui contribution darkar saya. Matailak eina naongarabingwui ava ava ngara ngashar phalungra. Nathumwui cooperation kala ningkahak demand saya. Churchwui role haklak eina leiya. Pastorbing, missionarybing kala kathanabingna thanda manglarinwui shongfa (roadmap) machukmilu. Longrei, longphang, ramwui longnao (institutions) kachiva policy khayek kala khangazip darkar sahaira. Tangkhulwui MLAs kala Councillorbingwui contribution kahaka darkar sahaira. Khanuithot hiyakhawui kharing kharak (livelihood) wui vang machukmi phalungra. Ima yurwui vang naongara ungkazang hina kharitta otphun mangasala kha kala khamahai (opportunity) akha ngasa kapai leiya.

Lansin (economy)

Covid 19 hina ngalei (nation) wui lansin (economy) suitameikhar haira. Reikasangwui ot (Developmental works) kachungkha sakaza leihaira kala ithumwui samphangran kachungkha katatmi kahai shokfara. Arui eina tangdala ithumwui mashun (rights) kala samphangran (previledges) kachungkha tampakwui mibingna ngaphonthui haira. Kathannabing, matailak eina ithumwui minganingbing ngachang kameida (active kasameida) ot kasa darkar sahaira. Hiwui atam hili Politics/partywui ningrin (feeling) maleipainara. Rai kasa atamli yur hupvana ngararki kachina. Chiwui vang eina ithum khalatta coordination and consultation leimeida ot kasa darkar sahaira.

Mimao khara eina ngasoda chamrei (famine/impoverishment) khara hi khangachana. Virus mang maningla kathai kachamwui eina kathi kasar kala kachot kachang kachungkha samphanga. Thangmeida ot kasabingwui vanga opportunity ngavaserra. Yanglu ithumli Varena somida mashalak kahai kala tumlak kahai ngalei hirikha leida lei. Athei arai, hanthing hanra kala kashak kaza ayur peida lingkhui kapai ngaleina. Kuingatok zangda ngachang kaka eina ngasoda ot saakha mirin ringshi khavai khikha maleimana. Environmentli concern leilaga ot samphalungra.

Aja Govt. of Indiana Covid-19 li khangarar (response) kasa sada lupa kachungkha heitami haira. Chiwui lungli luivat (agriculture) sectorwui vang sharuk kahakva zangda lei.

Unemployment

Covid-19 hina okathuiwui ngalei katongali otpam (employment) kachungkha sazahaira. International Labour Organization (ILO) wui estimate athi shurda kazat hina teomeithuida 1.25 billion (equivalent to 37.5% of workforce) wui otpam shiman kapai apong leihaira kala arui arui 2.7 billionli sazada lei. Arui arui Indiali unemployment rate hi 23.2% li leida lei.

Chitha akha khipalongli masaza mara khala? Technologyli specialized kasabing kala pangthem kathem (skill) khaleibingli masazamara. Athumva atam kachivali ot leisashonra. Chiwui vang eina otsak akhali specialization leikhavai hotna phalungra.

Indiawui PM na economic package sada Rs 20 lakh crore khuikashokwui ningrin hiva khalatta khanganing (self-reliance) kachi hili rinna. Crisis (kachot) khalei hili pangshap samphang kakhui (or opportunity) kala khalattawui sakashap khuikashok atam ngasa khavai saphalungra. Example sada, Covid-19 mararanglaga India hi Personal Protective Equipments (PPEs) kala N95 mask hi masemsa mana. Ajava Indiawui lungli thang thangli (everyday) 200,000 PPEs kala 200,000 N95 masks semshokta lei.

Education

Katam kashawui pongli khangachei kachungkha rahaira. Social distancing leihaoda contact class hi malei kapai hina maram sada ithumwui teaching-learning modalities ngachei phalungra. Schools/colleges close sahailaga kasaikha mapampai mara. Aruihon MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) zatnalak eina leida lei. Online classes, asignments kala assessment hi software shichinlaga computer kala mobile phone eina ot sangarokta lei. Ojabing training khuimiserlu. ̳Work from Home‘ concept hi adopt samiserlu.

Class X eina Class XII wui result shokrada lei. Matha khamei institution ayarli leihaoda lairik kathemnaobing ayar ngaleili atamthui khangarok hi khare atamli leisai. Kha ajakumva katamnaobing ayar mashokla ramwui schools/colleges li tamngarok haora. Naoshinao kaikhanava ana tamda khalei college chihohailaga shimshongli ungtamki kachi zangkapsara.

Hitharan atamli leida khalei institutions kachiva status review and update saphalungra, kaja katamnao hiyakhawui future semkhami hi yurli kasemna. Infrastructure development kala expansion leimi phalungra. Science laboratories mathameida leimi phalungra. Quality teaching and learningwui vang khamatha faculty recruit samilu Academic audit hi makhalei masapaimana. Digital age sahaokada okathuiwui reikasang chili ngarumda zatkhavai atam atamli ojabingwui short term courses/training programme khalei phalaka. TKS hi katamnao organization sahaokada athumna yangsangmi phalungra. Tangkhul Scholars‘ Associationwui khangachon darkar saakha mathanthuthup eina ngachonmira. Ramnaowui kuingatok mi khangateiwui reisang khavai vang (Brain drain) mangasala shim hankhaung (reverse migration) hina imaramwui reikasangwui vang thangmet hankhaung (reverse brain drain) ngasa khavai sasa.

Covid-19 hina maram sada atam akhali ithumwui ngalei hi ayarli chiham kasa (depend) salaga okthui kasa chi ara ayarli katom kashapa (support/supply) ngalei ngasa khavai hotnasa.

Disclaimer: The Arek do not claim ownership of this article. This article is written by Dr. Tuisem Shimrah, President Tangkhul Scholar’s Association, Assistant Professor, University School of Environment Mangament, GGSIP University, New Delhi.

To cite this article: Shimrah,T. (2020). Covid-19 Hina Tangkhul Li Khi Ngachei Ngasakpaili Khala. Antalagí Ideón [Sharing Ideas for a Better Tommorow], 1(1) , 16-18.