RS Ruichumhao : The Only and First Tangkhul Missionary

Tangkhul Nagas remembered Ruichumhoa as the ‘father of Christianity’.

The following piece is a short biography of Rungsung Ruichumhao and his visions interpretation.

Mr. RS. Ruichumhao was born on 7th May 1896, He attended school from 1905-1912. In 1909, he was baptized by Rev. William Pettigrew. He was the first convert among the Tangkhul Nagas. He was also the first among Nagas in Manipur to receive education from Jorhat and Shillong from 1914-1916. During the 1st World War, he was selected to go to France to assist the Allied Forces as the Group Leader of 2000 Nagas in the Labour Corps and promoted to higher rank in 1917. On his return from France, he went to Shillong for further studies in 1919. After that, he came back to his Tangkhul community with the Bible and the Holy Spirit with a single mission to spread the Gospel. Very soon, this man, inspired by the Holy spirit, went far beyond the Mao-Maram frontiers in Manipur and Somrah Tract in Burma to preach the Gospel, winning 1300 souls single-handedly. He is still remembered as the father of Christianity in larger parts of the Tangkhul community. He died on 17th January, 1933. He was only 37 then.


Ruichumhao was a man of vision in the true sense of the term. His vision went beyond the realm of religion. It encompasses political, educational and economic vision too. He dug canals to divert water to fields that were not properly irrigated. These canals to these days continue to water these parched fields, ensuring that many families do not go hungry. Here in this section the focus is only on the spiritual visions he received from God. Some of these visions have already appeared in the preceding pages. They are selected because of their significance and wider implications. First, a brief summary of the visions is given, second, an interpretation and their fulfillments are traced.

1. While he was studying at the L.P. School of Phadang in 1907(?) a local woman saw in her dream a bright star over Somdal.

2. In 1906 at Phadang village, he dreamt that he was rolling upon the royal bed for young people kept at the house of the chief. Young people did not sleep at home but in their bachelor’s dormitory (morung), which was mostly the chief’s house. A mammoth flat piece of wood hewn out of a single tree was used for this kind of bed. One such bed could accommodate around 10 persons.

3. At Ukhrul in 1908 on his way to the bathroom he was engulfed in a mysterious fire. But he was neither burnt, singed nor did he felt the searing heat. When Rev.William Pettigrew was told of this, he advised Ruichumhao not to tell others. “The Lord has wonderful but unknown plan for you” was the explanation of Pettigrew.

4. In 1918 while he was in France, he used to pray every day in the early hours of the morning. His body would be covered in a bright glow of light and sparks. The commander of his unit photographed this. When asked why he was praying everyday Ruichumhao replied, “I am standing on a foreign soil hearing throughout the day hearing the volleys of gunfire and battles. I am praying for the safety of the soldiers, for peace, and for victory for France and England”. The commander was impressed and remarked to his officers that Ruichumhao was fit to become a leader. He was assigned additional responsibilities and privileges after this incident.

Vision no. 1.
The bright star that was seen in the dream was Ruichumhao who shone both in his life and death.

Vision no. 2.
Rolling in the bed kept in the house of the chief fore shadowed the persecution and the struggle between the old religion of Shamanism and the new religion of Christianity. Ruichumhao and the new converts were perceived as iconoclasts destabilizing their society, since the new Christians would not join in observing the taboos, rituals and the other tribal religious festivals and functions. Imposing a fine of Rs 15 did not deter others from joining the church. Some defenders of the old ways and religion were fanatically violent. One such was Shangkatit an elderly man of Hoome village. He decided to take the matter in his own hands by vowing to kill Ruichumhao. Hearing that in three days Ruichumhao would be arriving at Khukhon Machit village, Shangkatit sharpened his spear. That night he dreamt that he turned into a lamb when Ruichumhao hit him with a stick. On hearing that Ruichumhao had arrived he went to the village with the intention of impaling Ruichumhao on his spear. But on seeing Ruichumhao, he started trembling with fear. Casting down his spear he ran to him, knelt before him and pleaded, “Please do not punish me. I am very sorry. I wanted to kill you but you must be planning to send me to prison. For I dreamt that after you hit me I became a lamb”. Ruichumhao smiled and replied, “O Awo (grandpa), do not worry at all. But would you like to become a Christian?”. Shangkat, it not only chose to become one but he promised to lead the whole village to Christianity. This kind of struggle between the two religions was the meaning of his vision.

Vision no. 3.
The vision of the mysterious fire that did not burn him was about the fight for justice on behalf of his people against L.L Peters the S.D.O. , Ukhrul. Peter was taking undue advantages of the Tangkhuls in the name of the Labour Corps and the government. During the paddy field season he would force them to work on the road for two or three weeks, use them as porters to carry army rations between Imphal and Ukhrul (82 km) and force young beautiful women to have sex with him. Burning with righteous anger Ruichumhao helped the victims to send a petition against Peters to J.C. Higgins, the Political Agent. Higgins on finding that the allegations against Peters were true transferred him to a distant place. His fearless fight for justice against a powerful officer like Peters was the meaning of vision no. 3. The Christians also accused Peters as being against conversion and anti-Christian.

Vision no. 4.
The light around his body and sparks from his chest meant the breaking out of the Kuki Rebellion War of 1917- 19. The stars signified recognition and honor for him at this war. He transcended tribalism and parochialism in his interaction with other tribes. It was no small achievement that his impartial and disinterested approach earned him the respect of other people, in this case, the Kuki tribe. Those who worked closely with him testified to his broad mindedness when dealing with the Kukis.

Disclaimer: The Arek do not claims ownership of this article. This article is written and published by Mash Somi.

COVID – 19 Hina Tangkhulli Khi Ngachei Ngasakpaili Khala

by: Tuisem Shimrah

COVID – 19 mimao (pandemic) hina okathui apam kachivali michang makhaila saza ngasak haira. Mi sorkhangasai thisang haira kala chungkhameina kazada lei, kaikhanala kharai samphanghaira. Kazat hili khangarar hina ngalei (country) kachivali apong kachungkhali sheisha khangasak khuiramihaira (multidimensional effect). Lansinli ngazansang ngasak haira, wortam shim (educational institutions) kala office/dharma shim (churches, temples, mosques hkt.) shungngasak haira, otpam shimanngasak haira kala mi yamung yamva ngarokta pakhangapa khuiramihaira. India wui PM, Qr Narendra Modina kahang, ―Fighting against COVID – 19 pandemic is no less than a war‖.

Aja COVID-19 hina maram sada ayar ngalei apam ngatei ngateidawui eina shimli hannungkida ima Tangkhulnaobing sorkhangasai leida lei. Kachungkha ungzang haira, aruila ungzangki kachi kachungkha leifaya. Ram kachivana athumbingli quarantine sakhavai shim sakchanglak eina khangaran sami haira. Shorkarnala lan kachungkha heitami haira kala ima Tangkhulli leida khalei Long, civil societies, minganing (MLAs/Councillors), government executives, NGOs, kala ram ramwui longnao katongana yang- pangshap, lan kala atam chikatta ot sada lei.

Chieina ngasoda athumwui mangashong kharing kharakwui vang ithumna thuklak eina khamachuk darkar sahaira. Maramma mi mashing hiyakha ungkazang hina ithumwui yaruirin, manglarin, lansinrin kala phasarin apong ayayavali ngachei ngasak kapai maram leihaowa. Khangachei hi khiwui ngarei (direction) khuira khala kachi hi ithumwui pangli khaleina. Atam leilaga ningyek (strategy) kasem atam ngasahaira.

Ungzangki kachibing (reverse migration) hi matailak eina ot kasanao (employees), ot phada khaleibing (job seekers and aspirants) kala katamnaobing (students) hibing hina. Horzak kahai mi mashing matheirarsalala rough estimate eina mi 10000 to 20000 alungli leisapaira da khuiya. Athum hi khanuithot tamkhui kahai yaron ngala zingkum (age group) 20-40 years hina kachunga sasara. Hina kachitheipava naongarabing hi mikumo akhawui mirinli phasawui (physical) kala ningchuk (mental) pangmeithui kachi atam (stage) sahaoda otmanga hakmeithuida khuikashap (most productive stage) atamlaka. Hanungda khaleibing hiwui eina ithumna apong khani eina theikhuiya, chiya:

  • Mi mashing hiyakhana shim hankhaung (reverse migration) sada khalei hina theikhangasak pava, ishi Tangkhulnaobing hi public or orgnised sectorli full time employee machungmana kha unorganized sectorli kasana chungmeikharda lei kachi theikhui ngasaka. Job security maleithuda lockdown sangashada awui tolop ngasammi kahai hina maram sada maokthuikapai rahaowa.

  • Athumbing hi kachungava sada khalei otpam chi chihochang hailaga shimshong ungpamchang haoki kachi, kaikhana awui business hi shimshong base sahaoki kachi kachungkha zangsara.

Hikatha situation hili ima Tangkhul pangsin kakhui eina ngasoda khangaran kasa darkar sahaira. Mi mashing hiyakhana ngaraikachaiya atamli (same time) ashangva sada (group) ungki kachi hili machuk kharikta pangsinkhuida khamashung shongfali thankazat hi ithumwui thangkhameina. Mi mashing chungkasang hieina ngasoda ram ramwui kharing kharakli ngachei kapai (influences) apong kachungkha leida lei. Chibing chiya:

Yaruirin kala manglarin

Metropolitan citiesli atam sharakha pamsahaokada ram (villageli) ungkapam eina cultural shock or crisis leikapai lei. Chimang maningla kashuirak (unplanned) eina hankhaung sahaoda mirinwui direction shiman kahai thadala leisara. Naongara hiyakha hi talent ayur peida zangsara; kaikhana leadership quality khalei, kaikhana technology singkathei (skill), kaikhana dharmarin kazatta, kaikhanava leikhalonli kathem, kaikhanava sportsli, kaikhana music kala laa sakathei, zangsara. Mi kaikhava khangarui, mangkaza, ari arai kashichin, khali kasa kala minamlaga okathui naongarala zangsara.

Khamashung shongfa chithei khami kala thanva khami hi mahuinapai mara. Hi haklak kahai challenge akhana. Atam chada athumwui shongfa (course) mashungkhuihai akha ima yurwui vang sakkhamataiya lan ngasara kha ngasharta handle masa akha ima yur shiman kapaiwui apong akhanada theikhui.

Hi ithum katongawui contribution darkar saya. Matailak eina naongarabingwui ava ava ngara ngashar phalungra. Nathumwui cooperation kala ningkahak demand saya. Churchwui role haklak eina leiya. Pastorbing, missionarybing kala kathanabingna thanda manglarinwui shongfa (roadmap) machukmilu. Longrei, longphang, ramwui longnao (institutions) kachiva policy khayek kala khangazip darkar sahaira. Tangkhulwui MLAs kala Councillorbingwui contribution kahaka darkar sahaira. Khanuithot hiyakhawui kharing kharak (livelihood) wui vang machukmi phalungra. Ima yurwui vang naongara ungkazang hina kharitta otphun mangasala kha kala khamahai (opportunity) akha ngasa kapai leiya.

Lansin (economy)

Covid 19 hina ngalei (nation) wui lansin (economy) suitameikhar haira. Reikasangwui ot (Developmental works) kachungkha sakaza leihaira kala ithumwui samphangran kachungkha katatmi kahai shokfara. Arui eina tangdala ithumwui mashun (rights) kala samphangran (previledges) kachungkha tampakwui mibingna ngaphonthui haira. Kathannabing, matailak eina ithumwui minganingbing ngachang kameida (active kasameida) ot kasa darkar sahaira. Hiwui atam hili Politics/partywui ningrin (feeling) maleipainara. Rai kasa atamli yur hupvana ngararki kachina. Chiwui vang eina ithum khalatta coordination and consultation leimeida ot kasa darkar sahaira.

Mimao khara eina ngasoda chamrei (famine/impoverishment) khara hi khangachana. Virus mang maningla kathai kachamwui eina kathi kasar kala kachot kachang kachungkha samphanga. Thangmeida ot kasabingwui vanga opportunity ngavaserra. Yanglu ithumli Varena somida mashalak kahai kala tumlak kahai ngalei hirikha leida lei. Athei arai, hanthing hanra kala kashak kaza ayur peida lingkhui kapai ngaleina. Kuingatok zangda ngachang kaka eina ngasoda ot saakha mirin ringshi khavai khikha maleimana. Environmentli concern leilaga ot samphalungra.

Aja Govt. of Indiana Covid-19 li khangarar (response) kasa sada lupa kachungkha heitami haira. Chiwui lungli luivat (agriculture) sectorwui vang sharuk kahakva zangda lei.


Covid-19 hina okathuiwui ngalei katongali otpam (employment) kachungkha sazahaira. International Labour Organization (ILO) wui estimate athi shurda kazat hina teomeithuida 1.25 billion (equivalent to 37.5% of workforce) wui otpam shiman kapai apong leihaira kala arui arui 2.7 billionli sazada lei. Arui arui Indiali unemployment rate hi 23.2% li leida lei.

Chitha akha khipalongli masaza mara khala? Technologyli specialized kasabing kala pangthem kathem (skill) khaleibingli masazamara. Athumva atam kachivali ot leisashonra. Chiwui vang eina otsak akhali specialization leikhavai hotna phalungra.

Indiawui PM na economic package sada Rs 20 lakh crore khuikashokwui ningrin hiva khalatta khanganing (self-reliance) kachi hili rinna. Crisis (kachot) khalei hili pangshap samphang kakhui (or opportunity) kala khalattawui sakashap khuikashok atam ngasa khavai saphalungra. Example sada, Covid-19 mararanglaga India hi Personal Protective Equipments (PPEs) kala N95 mask hi masemsa mana. Ajava Indiawui lungli thang thangli (everyday) 200,000 PPEs kala 200,000 N95 masks semshokta lei.


Katam kashawui pongli khangachei kachungkha rahaira. Social distancing leihaoda contact class hi malei kapai hina maram sada ithumwui teaching-learning modalities ngachei phalungra. Schools/colleges close sahailaga kasaikha mapampai mara. Aruihon MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) zatnalak eina leida lei. Online classes, asignments kala assessment hi software shichinlaga computer kala mobile phone eina ot sangarokta lei. Ojabing training khuimiserlu. ̳Work from Home‘ concept hi adopt samiserlu.

Class X eina Class XII wui result shokrada lei. Matha khamei institution ayarli leihaoda lairik kathemnaobing ayar ngaleili atamthui khangarok hi khare atamli leisai. Kha ajakumva katamnaobing ayar mashokla ramwui schools/colleges li tamngarok haora. Naoshinao kaikhanava ana tamda khalei college chihohailaga shimshongli ungtamki kachi zangkapsara.

Hitharan atamli leida khalei institutions kachiva status review and update saphalungra, kaja katamnao hiyakhawui future semkhami hi yurli kasemna. Infrastructure development kala expansion leimi phalungra. Science laboratories mathameida leimi phalungra. Quality teaching and learningwui vang khamatha faculty recruit samilu Academic audit hi makhalei masapaimana. Digital age sahaokada okathuiwui reikasang chili ngarumda zatkhavai atam atamli ojabingwui short term courses/training programme khalei phalaka. TKS hi katamnao organization sahaokada athumna yangsangmi phalungra. Tangkhul Scholars‘ Associationwui khangachon darkar saakha mathanthuthup eina ngachonmira. Ramnaowui kuingatok mi khangateiwui reisang khavai vang (Brain drain) mangasala shim hankhaung (reverse migration) hina imaramwui reikasangwui vang thangmet hankhaung (reverse brain drain) ngasa khavai sasa.

Covid-19 hina maram sada atam akhali ithumwui ngalei hi ayarli chiham kasa (depend) salaga okthui kasa chi ara ayarli katom kashapa (support/supply) ngalei ngasa khavai hotnasa.

Disclaimer: The Arek do not claim ownership of this article. This article is written by Dr. Tuisem Shimrah, President Tangkhul Scholar’s Association, Assistant Professor, University School of Environment Mangament, GGSIP University, New Delhi.

To cite this article: Shimrah,T. (2020). Covid-19 Hina Tangkhul Li Khi Ngachei Ngasakpaili Khala. Antalagí Ideón [Sharing Ideas for a Better Tommorow], 1(1) , 16-18.

Khamachuk: Media eina Mirin

by: A Blessing Muinao

Media hina fourth pillar sada aja okathuili pangshap khalei pakra akha ngasadalei. Media field hila ayur kachungkha leidalei kala aruihon smartphone eina internet access leihaokida mi kachungkhanala explore sakapaiya area akhana kala sapapamdalei media platforms kachungali. Journalism, Mass communication kala Visual Communicationwui background makhaleiya chila writing skill kala content create sakathei leihaiakha manga kakhui leikapdalei. Kala hili interest khalei kachungana hangkahaiya course degree mathada kupsanglaga campus placement, internships kala start-up salaga professional salak eina ot sazatdalei. Hiwui field hili apong ngateida ichichawui interest athisurda specialise sangarokdalei chiya news reporting, news editing (print journalism), photography, film-making, graphic designing, public relations, broadcast journalism (radio/TV), Content writing (online digital platforms), advertising agency, news agency, academic (teaching/research), mobile journalism (mojo), Social media communication, blogging, audio/sound production, event management kala Visual communicationli specialise kasabingna technical aspect Audio/Visual Arts, animation etc li rinda saya. Langmeida aruihon corporate communication kala public relations hina social responsibility khuikhavai akap akha sada organisation kachungkhali sichindalei.

Opportunities (sakhavai) kachungkha leidalei kala hi katamhi amanla sakpapamma specialisation athisurda (akap-akai sichinhaokida – softwares & hardwares). Journalism hi mataimeithuida yaruiwuivang otram khangatha ngasahaokida hiya service-oriented na kala income ungkazangla yangakha phalakka da khuiya. Aruihon lockdown atam hili Media outlets sustain masakharar kachungana financial support vathaokida employees layoff/furlough (khuishok/katat kahai/suspend sakahai) kachungkhala shokpapamdalei.

Ithumwui apamli media organisations hila mathada manganingkhuiranga dala hangaiya. Hiwui maram kachungkhala leisara, apamwui kasak-kapai kala shorkar eina ashangvawui sharuk kakhuila zanga. Teomameida rarsang-reisang mamandalei. Thuikahai atamli kala aruihonla journalists kala news orgnisationsli khamachitla theihaira kala langmeida infrastructure, capital, technology facility kala skilled professionals khavat einala hapkakhano leikapra. Universities kala colleges lila hiwui subject katam kala professional salak eina ot sadakhleila chungsang mamaanhaira. Hi tamkhui kahai kachunganala venture sada ichachawui portfolio mathada semkhuida organisation khamathalila ot sadalei kala kaikhana ichichawui company/organisationli sangarokdalei. Hiwui ngachaili Ishi tangkhulnaola zangkapdalei.

Media – fourth estate, watchdog, whistleblower dala kathei hiya – democratic environment wui kashok kazang check and balances mashun chili khamashung athisurda objective salak eina chitheimida dialogue kasa hina khamataiya principle akhana. Yaruili service khami kala mataimeithuida chotchangdakhalei mavashungkharar bingwuivangna. Lakhashong yangakha katei entertainment, publicity, promotion, events, etc kasa hila business perspective eina zatdalei. Chithada sada ichachawui principle/sakhangai/phabkata athisurda ot kasa ayurbinghi kapangkhuira – sepa kasa/business commercial profits perspective model eina khamachuk.

Sustainable economy semsa chihaiakha phungdakhlei shorkar (all levels), ashangva, tamkhuikahai media professionals kala mi kachivawui khangachon ningkasang phabtakhami darkar saya. Financial support kala sustainable management model leikhangarok grassroot level eina tangda vakashung hi darkar sahaira. Statewui capital eina district headquarters mangli maningla kha tangkhul ram kachivali vashungshapkhavai ngarankhami hi leikhavai ningrin kasa. Ram kanshokda kashok kazangwui chanpao mi kachivali samphangshapkhavai channel semkhami darkar sahaira. Khamashunga information samkaphanghina reikasang khuirara. Hikatha channel semkhami eina employment opportunities kachungkhala samphangra. Kha skill leida platform maleiakha stagnant sakahai or suitakahai leikappa.

Shimshongla sakapai apong kachungkha leisara. Azingli teomeikha kachithei hi machukngarumsa kala hili sakathei leisaakha ithum explore sangarumlaksa.

Areas bing:

Print media (Newspapers, Magazine etc – Reporting, editing, layout designing and printing etc), Broadcast (Radio kala TV – anchoring, scriptwriting, reporting, editing), Graphic designing (Banners, invites, brochures, greeting cards, presentations etc), Film Industry (Direction, production, studio related technical areas, cinematography, scriptwriting, music and background scores, promotion, editing, animation, theatre etc), Event Management (Live events, concert, exhibitions, seminars, workshops, Conferences etc), Public Relations (PSUs kala Private sector lila sangarokserdalei, institutions kachida ara PRO leingarokserdalei), Software knowledge khaleibingna kachungkha venture sangarokdalei aruihonva: website designing, graphic designingli ningkasang (sketching, drawing, cartooning sakathei), audio/video production – common salak kahai softwares bingna Photoshop, InDesign, illustrator, Dreamweaver, CorelDRAW, Adobe Audition/Cubase/Logic Pro, Adobe Premier Pro etc hibinghi einala studio katha sholaga self-sustain sangarokdalei. Photographyla chipapamma – project tarakha sangarokdalei events ngatateidawui – eg: wedding, concerts, exhibition, advertisements, fashion etc kala khararchan kapikatheibingna lairik la kapishokda ngayaodalei apam kachungali (fiction/non-fiction: eg tangkhulwui literature khavathi hikatha kapikashok eina kachungkha awor thangkhamei mataisangra). Kala kaikhana academic shongla zatpapamdalei. Journalism/Communication tamkhuikahaibingna Colleges/Universitiesli Professors sangarokdalei kala PhD Scholars sada research areas la opportunities khamathatha leipapamma scholarship samphangmamanda. Langmeida central governmentwui otpamla exam thalaga sangarokdalei (Refer Ministry of information and Broadcasting website).

Kaikhana ot ngateida salala atamwui lungli lairik kakapi kala khararchan kahanghi ningsanghaokida Independent salak eina freelancer akha sadala sangarokdalei – Stateli, townli kala ramli kashok kazang khamashung eina kapishokta media outletsli aman khuilaga chihoshokdalei kala blog (eg: Medium) la semngarokda archive sadalei. Hila pailak eina sapaiya, ara online eina chihongarokhaokida kala hi media outlets globally freelance reports ningkasangla leikapdalei. Atungli hangkahai thada, smartphone eina internet leingarokhaoda aruihonva citizen journalism/mobile journalism (mojo) la sangarokserdalei. Hikathahila opportunities phapaiya, portfolio kasem atam zanglala kha kachikatha content ngayaoshokdalei kachiwui quality yangphalungra – eg. social media platformsli kachungkha sangarokdalei – hikathahila collaborate sangarokda khamatha channel akha ngasapai yaruiwuivang. Kha mamalai ngasak khangai akhava ethical standard khalei kala media laws and ethics wui maramli kathei darkar saya. Hina chihoshokdakhlei content chiwui legality justice samira kala hi thuklak eina kathei khamataiya na – eg – privacy, copyrights, defamation, sedition, cyber laws etc kala media related Acts tarakha leidalei.

Khanaoli, opportunitiesva kachungkha leiya, ithumwui wui hotkhana ningkasang kala resource sichinkathei kala mashungda sakhuikatheili khaleina. Hili akap-akai sichinkikachi areasbingva amanla zangra kha investment kasava machukajaklaga mathada phabkata eina khalei sakathei athisurda sangarokra. Mahaimeirano kala reikasang ngasarano.

Disclaimer: The Arek do not claim ownership of this article. This article is written by A Blessing Muinao, Assistant Professor, Department of Journalism, Madras Christian College, Chennai,,

To cite this article: Muinao,T.A. (2020). Covid-19 Khamachuk: Media eina Mirin. Antalagí Ideón [Sharing Ideas for a Better Tommorow], 1(1) , 55-57.